periyar cardamom hills

Values of P.T.R. Cardamom Hills and Periyar wildlife sanctuary, Kerala, India. It was a nice boat trip through the Waters in the morning hours. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. In its early course, the river flows in a narrow north sloping valley starting from the Chokkampatti hills and extending north about 25 kilometres (16 mi), with a number of sharp lateral ridges running down to it from east and west. The general gradient is towards the west here. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. These hills produce the world’s best pepper and cardamom besides tea. This valley of Periyar at its source and the valley of Kunthi River in the Silent Valley are the only two forested higher valleys in the Western Ghats left intact even now. [22], Towards north, the Lower Periyar Valleys and the Periyar Basin extend up to the Idamala gorge cut by Periyar’s northernmost tributary – Idamalayar. Separating these valleys are a jumble of steep hills and flat topped plateaux with scarp faces rearing up to elevations of around 900 to 1,500 metres (3,000 to 4,900 ft). East of Chakkupallom, a small part of the adjacent Vaigai basin protrudes from Tamil Nadu into Kerala in this section. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. Owing to its scenic location and evergreen ambience, it has become an ideal home to a large number of rare and endangered wildlife species. It is joined by its major tributary, the Idamalayar, 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) upstream of the Bhoothathankettu barrage. The lower reaches of the Periyar are heavily polluted. With its crisp, clean air, spice-scented plantations and undulating hills, the region continues to beckon the adventurous traveller. The 925-square-kilometre (357 sq mi) Periyar Tiger Reserve is mostly within this southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills. Originally the hunting grounds of the Maharajah of Travancore, Periyar Tiger Reserve was declared a wildlife reserve (previously called the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary) in 1933. Periyar Tiger Reserve is the home to immense greenery, dense forests, and some of the most interesting species of wild animals in their natural habitats. Location of Periyar National Park. Things to do near Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Is this attraction a good place to visit on a, Is this a romantic place or activity that you would suggest for, Is this a must-do if you are traveling with a. There are several places of religious significance along the banks of the Periyar. The Idukki Subplateau is at an average elevation of 700 metres (2,300 ft). Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of them come from the Western Ghats of Southern India. [68][69] Constructed during the lifetime of Muhammad, the bodies of some of his original followers are said to be buried there. The Cardamom Hills get their name from the spices that are cultivated in these mountains of the Western Ghats in Kerala. [24][25][26] However, the Supreme Court of India in its judgement on the Mullaperiyar issue in 2014, made it clear that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the river Periyar.[27]. [51], There are other hydro-electric generation facilities on the river at Pallivasal, Chenkulam, Panniyar, Neriyamangalam and Lower Periyar. Kerala states that the Periyar is an intrastate river since no part of it flows through Tamil Nadu. [22] The Idamala gorge separates the Sholayar forests in the Nelliyampathies towards the north from the southern Anamudi Reserved Forest and High Range Plateau. [61], Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, one of the important bird sanctuaries of India, is an evergreen low-land forest located between the branches of Periyar River. We liked that the staff was very strict and ensured that everyone wore the Life-jackets and nobody was allowed to move around. It is located in the Pandalam Hills of the Western Ghats. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is located far down the river from the Mullaperiyar Dam site. [22] Here, east of the river channel, the undulating plateau rises up to the watershed line of the Western Ghats. • Approximately 100 km east of Kottayam, 110 km west of Madurai and 120 km southeast of Kochi 6. [9][10], The source of the Periyar lies high in the Western Ghats. [56] Water from these rivers are transferred to the adjacent Sholayar basin as part of the PAP agreement. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The largest is within the Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary. The tradition holds that the mosque, built in 629 AD by Mālik bin Dīnār, is the oldest mosque in India and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers. [9][47][48] Within this section there are a series of deep west-sloping valleys where the valley floors are often at elevations less than 300 metres (980 ft). The landscape on the Periyar Plateau portion of Elephant Reserve 10 maintains the most intact elephant range in Southern India. The eastern edge of the High Range plateau runs north from Kolukkumala, at the junction of the High Range Plateau with the Cardamom Hills, and continues onto the Top Station along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The town of Kodungallur lying close to the Periyar river is famous for the Cheraman Juma Masjid. [22] This section of the basin is divided into three parts. Kumily; Cardamom Hills; Boat Cruises; 0 Review Walking. A vast variety of plants and animals can be found in the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Drains the high ranges are susceptible to erosion and mass movements Hills is … is... 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[74] In the Periyar river basin, land sand mining is widespread in the plateau region in the highlands. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the largest and most visited wildlife reserves in India, and one of Kerala’s most popular destinations. The Mangalapuzha branch joins Chalakudy River and empties into the Lakshadweep Sea at Munambam, and the Marthandavarma branch flows southwards, again dividing into two near Kunjunnikkara island, going through the Udhyogamandal area and finally draining into the Cochin backwater system (part of Vembanad Lake) at Varappuzha. Greenpeace India describes the lower Periyar as "a cesspool of toxins, which have alarming levels of deadly poisons like DDT, endosulfan, hexa and trivalent chromium, lead, cyanide, BHC". Kalady started featuring in the spiritual map of India only after its rediscovery in the late 19th century by the then Shankaracharya of Sringeri and the subsequent consecration of a temple for Sri Adi Shankara in 1910.[66]. In the banks of Periyar Lake lays the pride of Kerala – The Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. Nearly 80% of the total area situated in the high ranges are susceptible to erosion and mass movements. This area is believed to harbour about 2,000 elephants and is one of the potential landscapes for the long-term conservation of the species. Although these facts have been admitted by Tamil Nadu,[15][16][78] it counters that the Periyar should be considered an inter-state river since a part of the catchment of the river lies in Tamil Nadu. The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills of Thekkady. This section of western slope of the Western Ghats is deeply dissected and has geographical as well as ecological characteristics found nowhere in the Western Ghats. This tract is almost entirely forested and the forests extend northwest between Periyar and Chalakudy rivers along the plains almost up to Kalady. Periyar is a boast of a rich bird life, animal life and plant life. Together with the nearby plantation town of Kumily, it forms a convenient base to explore the surrounding Cardamom hills. It was so much revenue for the Kingdom, they could not have ever diluted it. The church is dedicated to St. Thomas, who is believed to have prayed at this shrine. Salinity intrusion and pollution dispersion problems arose in the lower reaches of the Periyar due to non-availability of sufficient quantity of water for flushing. The Periyar National Park in Thekkady, Kerala, is one of the most bio-diverse regions in the world and the best-protected reserve area that one can lay eyes on in India. Mining of sands from these areas impose severe environmental problems to the river basin environment.[75]. [46], The High Range Plateau is located around Munnar and Devikulam. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. [4][10], The Periyar basin spreads over an area of 5,398 square kilometres (2,084 sq mi), most of it in central Kerala. The Periyar only has a narrow strip of the Cardamom Hill tableland to flow northward here. It has a rich and varied birdlife. Some of the major recommendations are ensuring zero effluent discharge from the industrial units in the Eloor-Edayar stretch and zero emission from companies. The famous Aluva Sivarathri festival is celebrated on the banks of the Periyar River in Aluva. [42][43], Minor tributaries are: cardamom county The first ISO Certified four-star resort in Kerala, Cardamom County is conveniently perched on the gradient of a gently sloping hill facing the Periyar Tiger Reserve. Chalakudy river itself has a catchment area of 1,704 square kilometres (658 sq mi), with 1,404 square kilometres (542 sq mi) in Kerala and 300 square kilometres (116 sq mi) in Tamil Nadu. Early morning walks are recommended as the forest comes to life with the calls of birds and monkeys while a boat trip on the lake is a great way to spot elephants, gaur and deer. What is the best time? A wide vista of the Cardamom Hill and just visible on the horizon is Periyar lake (part of Periyar wildlife sanctuary) at sunset. [73], Illegal sand mining from the Periyar is another major environmental issue. Cradled within the southern region of the Western Ghats, is the ever-green Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. The place is located in between the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills. Another inter-basin transfer from the Periyar to the Muvattupuzha river due to the Idukki project has further adversely affected the downstream flow in the Periyar river. Periyar and Kumily are the most convenient points from which visitors can easily explore Kerala's beautiful Cardamom hills. It has an average elevation of about 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and drains to the south through Muthirapuzha into Periyar. km of forested land, and shelters a wide variety of flora and fauna. Periyar National Park in Kerala is a protected wildlife reserve. Its eastern border is the main Anamalai ridge. The river bifurcates near Aluva into two major distributaries; one continues to flow through Desam as Mangalappuzha and finally drains into the Lakshadweep Sea. [46] The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is situated here. At the turn of the 20th century, it was fully covered by evergreen forests. [18][19] Various sources indicate the origin of the river to be Chokkampatti Mala,[20][21][22] a peak on the southern boundary of the Periyar Tiger Reserve. You are allocated a seat and there are 4 seats in a row so it is pot luck as to whether you have a good seat or not. The High Range portion is essentially the south and west draining slopes of the main Anamalai ridge with the Cardamom Hills located to its south. Our mountain biking tour, also known as The Cardamom Hills Cycling Trail, will take you through mountain roads with spectacularly beautiful cardamom forests and tea gardens. Going downstream, it defines a part of the border between Periyar section[29] of the reserve in the east and Sundaramala section[30] in the west and then the borders between Moolavaigai[31] and Thannikudy[32] sections in the east and Ummikuppan,[33] Mlappara[34] and Aruvioda[35] sections in the west before reaching the Periyar Lake. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. This shrine has now been accorded an international pilgrimage station. Twenty five percent of Kerala's industries are along the banks of river Periyar. The Church has a life-size statue of St. Thomas and the imprint of the feet of the Apostle on a rock. It’s located in the Cardamom Hills section of the Western Ghats at an altitude of 900m-1800m. It is less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide and is about 40 kilometres (25 mi) long. [8] Kochi city, in the vicinity of the river mouth draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion. These rainforests extend further west into the adjacent Pamba basin within the Gudarakal Forest Range and continue south beyond the Gudarakal Range into the forests of the Achankovil Division. The Chalakudy river also joins to this branch of the Periyar 10 kilometres (6 mi) south-east of Kodungalloor which expands to its maximum width at Munambam. Several species of birds, both forest birds as well as the water birds visit the sanctuary. [22], A poorly defined ridge that runs from near Chakkupallam (north of Kumily) on the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu extending southwest to near Vallakkadavu segregates the upper reaches of Periyar from the rest of the Cardamom Hills. A southwest to northeast ridge called the Chekuthan Mala separates the Idukki Sub-plateau from the Peermade Plateau as well as the main mass of Cardamom Hills. Where is the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary? [52], The important reservoirs in the Periyar basin within Kerala are Bhoothathankettu,[53] Idamalayar, Lower Periyar, Mattupetty, Anayirangal, Kundala, Ponmudi, Kallarkutti, Idukki (formed by construction of three dams—Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu),[54] Sengulam, Kallar, Erattayar and Mullaperiyar. [44] The basin has an inverted "L" shape with a maximum width at the intersection. Cassells periyar tiger reserve homestay is sorrounded with misty hills and plantations in the idukki district which captures the essence of all that is wild and wonderful. [28] After flowing 48 kilometres (30 mi) from its origin and on reaching Mount Plateau at its eastern end, it is joined by the west-flowing Mullayar—an important tributary—at Mullakudy. [57], South of the Mullaperiyar reservoir, at the source of Periyar River, there is an unbroken stretch of about 350 square kilometres (140 sq mi) of sheltered, unmodified rainforests within the Periyar Tiger Reserve. What are the nearby attractions? The Panniyar joins the Muthirapuzha, which drains the High Range Plateau section of the Periyar Basin in the north. The Idamala and Pooyamkutty rivers drain most of this section while its southern edge drains into the main Periyar. • The park is located at 4 km from Kumily; border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu in Idukki district. This ridge separates the basin of Pamba from Periyar. This is the southern extreme of the Periyar basin. Periyar (meaning: big river) is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. [60], The Periyar plateau forms a part of the Project Elephant Reserve 10, which also includes the Agasthyamalai-Mahendragiri hills. The catchment of Kattappana Ar located beyond the southeastern corner of the Idukki reservoir also falls in this portion. North of this ridge, the Cardamom Hills extend up to the high Munnar saddle. Since the commissioning of the Idukki project in 1976, tail-race water (between 19.83-78.5 m3/s) has been diverted from the Idukki reservoir through the Moolamattom power station into the Thodupuzha tributary of the Muvattupuzha river. Many parts of the area are directly connected to the backwaters with a network of canals. The Mullaperiyar dam is constructed at the confluence of the Periyar and Mullayar to create the Periyar Thekkady lake and reservoir, as well as the Periyar National Park. No tigers of course, we were on a walking tour and they are notoriously hard to find, even much, Hotels near Green Park Ayurvedic & Spices Plantation, Hotels near Deepa World Spice and Ayurvedic Garden, Hotels near Periyar Spice & Ayurvedic Garden, Kadathanadan Kalari & Navarasa Kathakali, Zipline & Aerial Adventure Parks in Thekkady, Points of Interest & Landmarks in Thekkady, Green Park Ayurvedic & Spices Plantation: Tickets & Tours‎, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary: Tickets & Tours‎, Deepa World Spice and Ayurvedic Garden: Tickets & Tours‎, Angadipetty -Kerala Ayurveda Museum: Tickets & Tours‎, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary Tours and Tickets, From snorkel to surfing—no expertise necessary, All ashore for easy trips straight from port, Flexible itineraries and personal experiences. Temperatures are cooler than on the coast, ranging from 15 – 30 degrees celsius, so bring warm and waterproof clothes. Periyar is one of the six major rivers flowing into the Vembanad lake. See my pictures for, We went for a Jungle Trek through the wildlife sanctuary . [79][80], The Supreme Court of India, in its verdict on 7 May 2014, stated that although the Periyar rises in and traverses only in the territory of Kerala before entering into Arabian sea, no part of the land in Tamil Nadu abuts river Periyar and that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the Periyar river, the fact that a small part of the Periyar river basin lies in Tamil Nadu is enough to make the river interstate in nature. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. Efforts have been made to prevent soil erosion on the banks of river periyar at Aluva Sivarathri manappuram (sand bank) through afforestation programs headed by renowned environmentalist, Prof. S. Sitaraman, since 1992. It ends in the north along the channel of Periyar from Neriamangalam to Panamkutty. This area was heavily forested till the 1950s but now only three small fragments of forest vegetation alone remain. The Periyar basin spreads over an area of 5,398 square kilometres (2,084 sq mi), most of it in central Kerala. [45], Anamudi, at 2,695 metres (8,842 ft) the highest peak in South India, is the highest point in the basin. This part of the Cardamom Hills is called the Sivagiri Range and it extends south up to Chokkampatti Mala which is at the junction of Pamba and Periyar River basins. From its source near Chokkampatti Mala initially Periyar flows north between these two heavily forested ridges. The total protected area of this wildlife sanctuary covers an area of about 900 sq km. 3 OF 2006 State of Tamil Nadu vs. State of Kerala & Anr", "Long term conservation potential of Natural Forest in the Southern Western Ghats of Kerala", "Sundaramala Section, Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Moolavaigai Section, Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Thannikudy Section, Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Ummikuppan Section, Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Mlappara Section, Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Aruvioda Section, Periyar Tiger Reserve", "GROUND WATER INFORMATION BOOKLET OF ERNAKULAM DISTRICT KERALA STATE", "Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India", "Environmental Monitoring Programme on Water Quality", "Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical studies of the Periyar Basin, Central Kerala", "District Groundwater Brochure Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu", "Annual Report 2009-10, Centre for Earth Science Studies", "The Landscape, Ecological Status, Conservation Potential, Threats to the Forests and Biodiversity of the Gudarakal Range, Ranni Forest Division (Southern Forest Circle, Kerala)", "Parambikulam Aliyar (Irrigation) JI02563", "Salinity intrusion and seasonal water quality variations in the tidal canals of Cochin", "An Integrated Hydrogeological study of the Muvattupuzha river basin, Kerala, India", "PATTERNS AND PROCESSES OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN PERIYAR LAKE VALLEY SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN WESTERN GHATS", "Inter-linking rivers - the Kerala experience", "Revise water release chart of PAP: experts", "An Ecological Study in Periyar Tiger Reserve with special reference to wildlife", "Status and distribution of birds in Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India", "Conservation of the Periyar-Agasthyamalai Corridor in the Southern Western Ghats", "The List of Wetlands of International Importance", "Sri Sri Jagadguru Shankaracharya Mahasamsthanam Dakshinamnaya Sri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri", "World's second oldest mosque is in India", Periyar River Basin, Chapter 2, Environmental Program on Water Quality, Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, "Save river campaign set to engulf Kerala", "CM's office okayed ghats for sand mining against CESS advice", "Environmental impact of sand mining: a case study in the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest India", "Kerala: law won't amount to usurpation of judicial power", "Mullaperiyar dam case: SC reserves order", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Periyar_(river)&oldid=997707126, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles containing undetermined-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 January 2021, at 21:07. [9] Downstream of the Mullaperiyar dam, the Periyar continues to flow northwestward for 35 kilometres (22 mi), exiting the Periyar Tiger Reserve and passing through Vandiperiyar, Elappara and Ayyappancoil to the Idukki reservoir formed by the Idukki, Cheruthoni and Kulamavu dams. • Periyar wildlife sanctuary is set high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the southern Western Ghats. [13][14] This has also been admitted by the state of Tamil Nadu in the court. Supply of water for drinking and industrial purposes are met by a portion of storage water by the barrage of Bhoothathankettu. more, Browse our largest collection of experiences, No stress transit for your arrival and departure, Explore on your feet—and never miss anything. Its eastern boundary is a northwest to southeast ridge separating the Idukki reservoir from the Kallar/Perinjankutty tributary of Periyar which drains the main Cardamom Hills. [64] The temple festival is conducted every year on Sivarathri day of the Kumbham month of Malayalam calendar. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The basin is bounded in the north by the ridge separating Sholayar from the Idamala River. [46], The southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills i.e. Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of … Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Cardamom hills is … This portion of the Periyar basin is drier than all other west sloping parts of the Western Ghats. The most prestigious region on the high ranges of the Western Ghats, the Periyar Tiger Reserve is located on the Cardamom Hills … Immediately downstream of Mullaperiyar dam, Periyar cuts through this ridge. On the other hand, the landscape has also witnessed a variety of developmental activities including commercial plantations, hydroelectric and irrigation projects and other forms of infrastructural development that impede the movement of elephants. [22], To the west of the Lower Periyar Valleys are the midlands, which are characterized by undulating topography with small hills separated by valleys. [20] During this journey the Periyar traverses through the Periyar Tiger Reserve, flowing across or forming the boundaries between various sections of the reserve. [22], The High Range Plateau has been almost totally transformed by tea plantations and hydroelectric dams. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}10°10′36″N 76°09′46″E / 10.17667°N 76.16278°E / 10.17667; 76.16278, "Understanding the 42-year-old Idukki dam which is now saving Kerala", "Studies on the nature and chemistry of sediments and water of Periyar and Chalakudy Rivers, Kerala, India by Maya K.", "Growth response of phytoplankton exposed to industrial effluents in River Periyar", "Mullaperiyar: Kerala contests TN's rights over river", "Report of the Empowered Committee of the Supreme Court on Mullaperiyar Dam", "Mullaperiyar deal unsustainable: Kerala", "Mullaperiyar pact legally unsustainable, says Kerala; Justifies fixing water level at 136 ft", "Final legal arguments submitted by Kerala", "Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary/Periyar Tiger Reserve", "Periyar Tiger Reserve -> Values of P.T.R. Cardamom Hills and Periyar wildlife sanctuary, Kerala, India. It was a nice boat trip through the Waters in the morning hours. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. In its early course, the river flows in a narrow north sloping valley starting from the Chokkampatti hills and extending north about 25 kilometres (16 mi), with a number of sharp lateral ridges running down to it from east and west. The general gradient is towards the west here. There are cardamom hills, there is cardamom hill reserve, there is the Western Ghats. These hills produce the world’s best pepper and cardamom besides tea. This valley of Periyar at its source and the valley of Kunthi River in the Silent Valley are the only two forested higher valleys in the Western Ghats left intact even now. [22], Towards north, the Lower Periyar Valleys and the Periyar Basin extend up to the Idamala gorge cut by Periyar’s northernmost tributary – Idamalayar. Separating these valleys are a jumble of steep hills and flat topped plateaux with scarp faces rearing up to elevations of around 900 to 1,500 metres (3,000 to 4,900 ft). East of Chakkupallom, a small part of the adjacent Vaigai basin protrudes from Tamil Nadu into Kerala in this section. The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery. Owing to its scenic location and evergreen ambience, it has become an ideal home to a large number of rare and endangered wildlife species. It is joined by its major tributary, the Idamalayar, 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) upstream of the Bhoothathankettu barrage. The lower reaches of the Periyar are heavily polluted. With its crisp, clean air, spice-scented plantations and undulating hills, the region continues to beckon the adventurous traveller. The 925-square-kilometre (357 sq mi) Periyar Tiger Reserve is mostly within this southernmost part of the Cardamom Hills. Originally the hunting grounds of the Maharajah of Travancore, Periyar Tiger Reserve was declared a wildlife reserve (previously called the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary) in 1933. Periyar Tiger Reserve is the home to immense greenery, dense forests, and some of the most interesting species of wild animals in their natural habitats. Location of Periyar National Park. Things to do near Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Is this attraction a good place to visit on a, Is this a romantic place or activity that you would suggest for, Is this a must-do if you are traveling with a. There are several places of religious significance along the banks of the Periyar. The Idukki Subplateau is at an average elevation of 700 metres (2,300 ft). Pepper is known as the King and cardamom is known as the queen of spices, and the best of them come from the Western Ghats of Southern India. [68][69] Constructed during the lifetime of Muhammad, the bodies of some of his original followers are said to be buried there. The Cardamom Hills get their name from the spices that are cultivated in these mountains of the Western Ghats in Kerala. [24][25][26] However, the Supreme Court of India in its judgement on the Mullaperiyar issue in 2014, made it clear that Tamil Nadu is not a riparian state of the river Periyar.[27]. [51], There are other hydro-electric generation facilities on the river at Pallivasal, Chenkulam, Panniyar, Neriyamangalam and Lower Periyar. Kerala states that the Periyar is an intrastate river since no part of it flows through Tamil Nadu. [22] The Idamala gorge separates the Sholayar forests in the Nelliyampathies towards the north from the southern Anamudi Reserved Forest and High Range Plateau. [61], Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, one of the important bird sanctuaries of India, is an evergreen low-land forest located between the branches of Periyar River. We liked that the staff was very strict and ensured that everyone wore the Life-jackets and nobody was allowed to move around. It is located in the Pandalam Hills of the Western Ghats. Most of the streams flow in deep gorges with steep valleys along the highlands of the basin. The area belonging to Tamil Nadu in the Periyar basin is located far down the river from the Mullaperiyar Dam site. [22] Here, east of the river channel, the undulating plateau rises up to the watershed line of the Western Ghats. • Approximately 100 km east of Kottayam, 110 km west of Madurai and 120 km southeast of Kochi 6. [9][10], The source of the Periyar lies high in the Western Ghats. [56] Water from these rivers are transferred to the adjacent Sholayar basin as part of the PAP agreement. Spices from Southern India was considered to have possessed world-class quality. The largest is within the Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary. The tradition holds that the mosque, built in 629 AD by Mālik bin Dīnār, is the oldest mosque in India and the second oldest mosque in the world to offer Jumu'ah prayers. [9][47][48] Within this section there are a series of deep west-sloping valleys where the valley floors are often at elevations less than 300 metres (980 ft). The landscape on the Periyar Plateau portion of Elephant Reserve 10 maintains the most intact elephant range in Southern India. The eastern edge of the High Range plateau runs north from Kolukkumala, at the junction of the High Range Plateau with the Cardamom Hills, and continues onto the Top Station along the border between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The town of Kodungallur lying close to the Periyar river is famous for the Cheraman Juma Masjid. [22] This section of the basin is divided into three parts. Kumily; Cardamom Hills; Boat Cruises; 0 Review Walking. A vast variety of plants and animals can be found in the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Drains the high ranges are susceptible to erosion and mass movements Hills is … is... 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