One of the immediate implications is … The 137-nation index ranks countries' productivity and prosperity, drilling down into myriad indicators that can also impact international trade. The BMBF has its own SME innovation program, KMU-Innovativ. 376 Expert Commission on Research and Innovation, “Research, Innovation and Technological Performance in Germany Report 2009,” op. We try to give them as much autonomy as possible,” explained Anke Hellwig, liaison office for Fraunhofer USA’s seven U.S. centers. Wolff,, China’s Promotion of the Renewable Electric Power Equipment Industry: Hydro, Wind, Solar, Biomass, Dewey & LeBoeuf LLP prepared for National Foreign Trade Council, March 2010. 38. 449 For a good analysis of the evolution of Canadian innovation policy, see Thomas Liljemark, “Innovation Policy in Canada: Strategies and Realities,” Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies, A2004:24 (http://www.vinnova.se/upload/EPiStorePDF/InnovationPolicyInCanada.pdf). To help deliver health care to remote villages, for example, hospitals in Delhi are setting up “medical kiosks” in clusters of villages that enable doctors in Delhi to diagnose patients using satellite technologies. The competitiveness strategy can be traced to the 1979 and 1980 reports of the Joint Economic Committee, chaired by Senator Lloyd Bentsen. Since separating from Malaysia in 1965, per-capita income has soared from a mere $512 to $42,653 in 2009.271 Like Taiwan, Singapore’s takeoff was fueled first by labor-intensive manufacturing in the 1960s. India also has several large initiatives to boost its global standing in strategic science and technologies areas. The Department of Finance and the Department of Industry began to formulate an innovation framework for the country in 1998. Two-thirds of the equipment now is sold in other emerging markets and even in the U.S. 126, Some Chinese research operations are starting to serve the global needs of U.S. companies. 169 From presentation by T. S. R. Subramanian in National Research Council, India’s Changing Innovation system: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation, Charles W. Wessner and Sujai J. Shivakumar, editors, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007. For example, thenPresident Jiang Zemin declared in the keynote address to the National Innovation Technology Conference on Aug. 23, 1999, that “the core of each country’s competitive strength in intellectual, impressive focus. 225 “Electronics Development Fund to Promote innovation Soon—Official,” Indo-Asian News Source (February 21, 2011). 172 “India suffers from inefficiency in transforming its S&T investments into scientific knowledge (publications) as well as into commercially relevant knowledge (patents).” National Academy of Sciences, S&T Strategies of Six Countries, op. cit. It also has joined with Michigan State University to open a center for advanced coatings and laser technology applications. Government also is helping build domestic markets for domestic solar and wind power, energy-efficient solid-state lighting, and electrified vehicles industries through government purchases and generous incentives for consumers. 426 Eurostat and Statistics Finland data. The program aims to enhance the ability of small and midsized enterprises to develop technology and innovative products. On a visit to Washington in January 2011, President Hu signed a joint statement with President Barack Obama in which he pledged that “China will not link its innovation policies to the provision of government procurement preferences.” The statement also said China will seek to join the WTO Government Procurement Agreement by the end of 2011.141 At a meeting with U.S. and Chinese businessmen, President Hu said of companies setting up operations in China: “In terms of innovation productions, accreditation, government procurement, (and) IPR protection, the Chinese government will give them equal treatment.”142 On June 29, 2011, China’s Ministry of Finance said it would not require companies to transfer patents and other intellectual property to China as a condition for selling equipment and technology to the government. As a result, it wants to market its. The council drafts comprehensive science and technology policies to respond to national and social needs, advises on how to allocate resources, and evaluates major projects. Taiwan’s rise from poverty in the 1950s to one of the world’s premier high-tech powers has made it a role model of how to use science and technology policy for rapid economic development. 12 Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China, China S&T Statistics Data Book 2010, Figure 1-3 at http://www.sts.org.cn/sjkl/kjtjdt/data2010/cstsm2010.htm. The Globa… The Shanghai center originally was intended to serve as an extension of GE Global Research in Niskayuna, N. Y., to tap lower-cost Chinese talent to help with next-generation products.124 Although the center has 200 engineers working on long-term research, most of the center’s work serves GE’s $6 billion annual businesses in China in areas such as aircraft engines, medical equipment, water management systems, rolling stock, oil and gas technology, and home appliances—as well as GE’s 26 manufacturing plants in China. 349 Data from Research in Germany Web site of the BMBF http://www.research-ingermany.de/research-landscape/r-d-policy-framework/60122/higher-education-pact.html. In 1999, Japan enacted a law that gave universities and research institutes the ability to patent investments derived from publicly funded research, similar to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980. The main conduits for disseminating technology to China’s corporate sector are the some 4,000 research institutes controlled by central ministries, local governments, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. cit. Because students must focus on either liberal arts or science and technology at an early age, many do not get broad interdisciplinary education. Taiwan had record exports in 2010 of $275 billion, with 42 percent going to China, up from 24 percent in 2000.246. Each of these nations has revamped their national innovation strategies in order to increase R&D spending, collaboration between industry and academia, and new technology start-ups. Those firms who have been successful have highly focused on their human resources activities in selection, training and compensation policy. Universities also were encouraged to become more commercially viable, compete for faculty and research funding, and cooperate with industry and government.47 They also were encouraged to form enterprises, incubate new companies, and create science parks. The U.S. and India established a new joint science and technology endowment fund to facilitate research collaborations for industrial applications. 352 Federal Ministry of Education and Research Web site. The megaprojects include extra large-scale semiconductor manufacturing, next-generation wireless broadband, advanced nuclear reactors, control of AIDS and hepatitis, and large aircraft manufacturing. the large potential of ICT for growth and employment in Germany.” 338 Broad goals include wiring the country with high-performance broadband networks of at least 50 megabits per second that will reach three-quarters of the population by the end of 2014 and the entire country as soon as possible. in Beijing (June 2011). 188 National Innovation Council, “India Decade of Innovations 2010-2020 Roadmap,” March 2011 (http://www.innovationcouncil.gov.in/ideas/ppt1.php#). 63 Matthew Dalton, “EU Finds China Gives Aid to Huawei, ZTE,” Wall Street Journal, Feb. 3, 2011. 193 National Innovation Council, Towards a More Inclusive and Innovative India, op. A study of 25 industrial sectors by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry in 2007 found there is a 25 percent shortage of skilled personnel in engineering.201, Universities also play a small role in the innovation system compared to those in other countries. Applied research was the responsibility of thousands of research institutes controlled by central ministries and provincial governments, while state enterprises developed products. Drug-research firm Piramal Health Care has drug-discovery partnerships with Lilly and Merck, while Ranbaxy has a major collaboration with GSK. Institute directors coming from private industry general take steep pay cuts, but they can earn outside income as consultants. 19 National Research Council, S&T Strategies of Six Countries, Implications for the United States, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010, page 30. Although the share of national R&D conducted by businesses in India rose from 19 percent in 2002 to 30 percent in 2008 [See Figure 5.6], industry plays a smaller role in innovation than in many other nations. State-owned industrial companies, meanwhile, tend to be strong advocates of indigenous innovation policies in order to protect their domestic franchises. The government enacted a series of other reforms since then, including the Basic Law on Intellectual Property in 2003 and establishment of the Intellectual Property High Court in 2005, which is modeled after the U.S. Court of Appeals of the Federal Circuit. The remaining third comes from publicly funded research projects that it wins on a competitive basis from the German government and the European Union. 212 Under India’s Soviet-inspired planned economy from 1947 through the introduction of reforms in 1991, Indian companies were regulated by an system of licenses and permits derisively known as the License Raj that controlled what and how much companies could manufacture, prices, sources of capital, closing of factories, and firing workers. 288 National Research Foundation, “National Framework for Innovation and Enterprise,” Prime Minister’s Office, Republic of Singapore, 2008 (http://www.nrf.gov.sg/nrf/otherProgrammes.aspx?id=1206). Globalization, new technologies, and greater transparency have combined to upend the business environment and give many CEOs a deep sense of unease. 289 S&T Strategies in Six Nations, op cit. 346 Gretchen Vogel, “A German Ivy League Takes Shape,” Science Magazine, Oct. 13, 2006. The government also provides early-stage financing for small and midsized enterprises and spreads the innovation message relentlessly through schools and the media. The highest is Peking University at No. Germany is a world leader in optics, a €2 billion industry that also has received significant public support. ITRI achieved a major advance by acquiring key technology from Eastman Kodak, the inventor of organic LED (OLED) technology, which the U.S. company was unable to turn into commercially viable products. Yet Canada is not among the leaders in most benchmarks of innovation, ranking 12th in the World Economic Forum’s latest Global Competitiveness Index.435 In part, this is due to low R&D spending by business, which has. 1 in terms of “innovators.”313, German innovation still faces a number of serious challenges, however. 265 The institute also has an open laboratory to make 8-inch wafers for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). cit. The global environment Of all the steps in formulating strategy, no one step is as important as the ability to assess the "environmental" factors in international marketing. The National Research Foundation gets an equity stake in exchange that coinvestors may buy out in the next round of financing. More than 60 percent of ITRI’s 6,000 employees hold master’s or doctorate degrees. India has become a closer partner with the United States in recent years. 223 From presentation by M. P. Chugh of Tata Auto Component Systems in India’s Changing Innovation System, op. 71 Yuqing Xing and Neal Detert, “How the iPhone Widens the United States Trade Deficit with the People’s Republic of China,” ADBI Working Paper 257, Asian Development Bank Institute, December 2010 (http://www.adbi.org/files/2010.12.14.wp257.iphone.widens.us.trade.deficit.prc.pdf). 5 Forces Analysis Of The Environment: The five forces model of analysis was developed by Michael Porter to analyze the competitive environment in which a product or company works. Fraunhofer alumni at German companies also help provide the institutes with relationships for new business. As of September 2009, the foundation had committed nearly $5.2 billion to 6,300 projects at 130 research institutions across Canada. according to a BMBF report. 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